Cognitive Poetics: Conceptual Frame Theory

In my previous post on comprehension of literature, I summarized Stockwell’s overview of the construction-integration model of literary comprehension. In this post, I will focus on one specific tool developed within the construction-integration model: contextual frame theory. In Cognitive Poetics in Practice Catherine Emmott, who developed contextual frame theory, analyzes various “tails of the unexpected”. And in Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction, Peter Stockwell uses contextual frame theory to analyze The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde.

First, Emmott explains the basic principles of her contextual frame theory. The mental representations readers build and maintain while reading a text are called contextual frames. And the contextual frame that is most immediate to the reader, the one the reader feels she is actively witnessing, is called the primed frame. Within the primed frame are more mental representations called projected frames. The projected frames are less salient and less detailed than the primed frame but can be representations of such things are flashbacks, off-stage action, and plans.

Contextual frame theory is distinct from Stockwell’s “frame projection” and Werth’s “sub-worlds”, discussed in the chapters on parable. Contextual frame theory does not have anything like attitudinal or modal sub-worlds. Contextual frame theory is limited to representations of actual physical and social context. So, every projected frame is subject to specific types of assumptions and inferences relating to the physical and social. While this limitation drastically narrows the scope of contextual frame theory, in doing so Emmott elucidates some interesting features of texts, not only related to plot but also to stylistics.

Four types of frame assumptions can be made about projected frames. Type 1 assumptions are based on real world schemas about the physical and social world. Type 2 assumptions are also based on real world schemas but are more circumstantial than Type 1 assumptions. The examples Emmott provides for these first two types of assumptions are that characters within the immediate vicinity of a speaker can hear what is being said, but that a character wearing earphones might not hear. Type 3 assumptions are not based on real world schemas but on schemas from literary sources. For example, a reader of vampire stories may make specific assumptions about vampire characters such as avoiding sunlight and crucifixes. And the fourth type of frame assumption occurs when we are surprised, when our original assumptions are challenged and subsequently altered, which Stockwell refers to as “frame repair”. These four types of frame assumptions are used, sometimes in combination, to make inferences explaining what is happening or predicting what will happen.

In some cases, these inferences may override propositional content of the text, a feature of contextual frame theory that challenges other linguistic models which emphasize propositional content as the source for a reader’s construction of meaning. Contextual frame theory shows how important contextual information is to interpretation of propositional content. To illustrate how textual content is sometimes overridden, Emmott uses an example from Tulip by Deborah Moggach. The text describes a character, Willem, watching another character, Maria, secretly meeting and then kissing an unidentified man. Although implicit clues in the preceding text let the reader know it is actually another character, Sophia, in disguise, the propositional content of the text does not. The reader constructs the meaning of the passage not only from the propositional content but from the context.

Peter Stockwell’s cognitive poetic analysis of the play The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde is along very different lines than Emmott’s, demonstrating the versatility of contextual frame theory. He considers the differences in contextual monitoring between a reader of the play and an audience watching a performance of the play. For the reader, the primed frame is indicated by the stage directions, and textual overtness switches as each character’s name appears in the text just to the left of each line of dialog. This is especially significant in a play like The Importance of Being Earnest that hinges on belief frames and enactors, versions of the same character that are significantly different in different contexts. To account for an audience’s contextual monitoring without access to stage directions or the names of characters except when spoken in dialog, Stockwell introduces a distinction between “visual priming” and “verbal priming”. A contextual frame is visual primed by what the audience sees on stage, and another contextual frame can be verbally primed by the characters on the stage. Verbally primed frames can include the belief frames of characters.

The audience and a reader of The Importance of Being Earnest will need to do some frame repair. Or in terms of Emmott’s frame assumption categories, both an audience and a reader will experience Type 4 frame assumptions, situations of surprise that require re-evaluation. But Stockwell points out that the timing and extent of the required frame repair is different depending on how the play is experienced. A reader experiences textual jokes and puns as the names of characters appear differently in stage directions and dialog. But the names spoken in dialog are the only names the audience has access to as they monitor the different belief frames and contexts throughout the play.

Stockwell concludes his analysis with a brief consideration of one rather difficult staging of the play in 2001 that focused on the sexuality of Oscar Wilde. Information about the homosexual subtext of the play was provided to the audience in the programme at the start of the play. And in performing the play, actors cross-dressed and exchanged roles, so that the magnitude of enactor switches was several times greater than in the original text. The complexity and incoherence, Stockwell argues, becomes thematic of the director’s vision or belief frame.

Both Stockwell’s and Emmott’s analyses address how writing style controls the flow of information that influences inferences and assumptions the reader or audience makes when engaging with a text, and both analyses consider examples of plot reversals, texts that turn on Type 4 assumptions. To write an effective plot reversal, an author must provide sufficient contextual information for the reader to form assumptions but withhold some critical information until the denouement. Indeed, the control of information is how an author shapes all emotional responses to reading a text. Using Emmott’s contextual frame theory, I would like to study more examples of how different authors use stylistics to manage information for different effects. In addition to surprises twists and plot reversals, I am intrigued by how the flow of information about context might achieve subtle emotional responses.

Retreat at Gethsemani Abbey 2018

As I have done for the last few years, I began my summer with a retreat at Gethsemani Abbey. And as I have done each year, I chose a book by Thomas Merton to help me engage with the experience of being at Gethsemani Abbey. In the past I have read Merton?s books Seven Story Mountain and New Seeds of Contemplation. I found that Merton?s contemplative approach afforded me a way to connect with the experience of the Abbey even though I am not familiar with Catholic practices. This year I discovered a series of talks by Merton, talks on literature and religion he gave at the Abbey in the 1960s?yet another way for me to connect in addition to the contemplative approach! I listened to his talk on Bernard of Clairvaux, the founder of the Cistercian Order, and a series of talks he gave on William Faulkner.

In Merton?s talk on Bernard of Clairvaux, he analyzes St. Bernard?s hagiography as a model for monastics. Merton makes the point that the monastic?s path is renunciation but is not a path of disengagement. A monk must engage in all aspects of human life: body, mind, and heart. But these aspects are devoted to activities that bring the monk closer to God. Monks labor, using their bodies. Monks chant and sing, expressing love. Monks study and write, using their intellect and creativity. I recall talks about renunciation from the Shambhala Warrior Training that described the path of renunciation in similar ways: renunciation isn?t necessarily austere. Renunciation is using discriminating awareness to foster engagement.

Merton spoke further about the idea of activities that bring one closer to God in the literature talk from the series on William Faulkner. Before getting in the Faulkner specifically, Merton began by discussing classicalism. As he put it, a classical outlook on life assumes that one should engage in the right kind of activities, activities that fully express the human potential. He refers to John Milton to articulate that classical view, a view that had been the ideological backdrop for European civilization for centuries. The classical outlook on life is quiet, contemplative, and humble. Importantly, living a classical life opens one to divine inspiration because one?s life is in harmony with divine order. This relates directly to the monks Merton is addressing but has implications for anyone and everyone.

The idea of living a life based on divine harmony, based on fulfilling one?s role in the divine hierarchy, has its origins in St. Augustine?s City of God. Merton connects this idea with Paradise Lost, which he says can only be understood correctly by understanding what divine harmony means in the classical view. Merton goes on to explain that the Romantics did not hold the classical view on life, and so they read Satan as the hero of Paradise Lost. For the Romantics, Satan is a swaggering rebel in opposition to an authority figure.

I can identify with the Romantic view, and I have at times felt a powerful resistance to any sense of hierarchy. The suggestion that there is a natural hierarchy has always felt like a lie to me, a myth concocted by The Powers That Be to justify and maintain their authority. And like Satan in Paradise Lost I resist that authority with every fiber of my being, even to my own detriment, because I refuse to submit.

However, I also identify strongly with the classical view on life that Merton describes. I value the quiet, contemplative, humble life. I believe there is an order to the universe, even if the organizing principle of that order is entropy. And I believe I have a place in the universe. I endeavor to practice nonattachment, which is an expression of obedience and submission to the way things are.

Merton?s source for discussing Milton and Paradise Lost is T. S. Eliot?s essays on Milton, which Merton says are ?one of the great intellectual battles? of the twentieth century. Eliot argues that Milton is not a classical poet, that Milton is a genius using language but that he does not express the genius of the language. Merton, on the other hand, believes Milton has the classical view. As Merton puts it, Milton assumes that it is worthwhile to devout one?s life to writing well?to achieving full potential of one?s inherent gifts and talents. If that is classicalism, then sign me up!

Merton also disparages Eliot?s comparison of Milton and Byron, making a mockery of the Romantic poet. The Romantic poets were concerned with having experiences, and Byron the poet has experiences all over the place. But Merton says by today?s standards?even by 1960s standards?Byron?s once exotic experiences appear rather mundane. Most of us have had all those experiences before we reach our twenties.

Even Merton admits he is being just a little bit unfair. Yes, the Romantic poets defied convention, indulging in sex, drugs, and poetry. But alongside Byron?s She Walks in Beauty are other Romantic poems such as I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud and La Belle Dame Sans Merci Taken all together, the Romantics were not so much concerned with the experience but, as Timothy Merton has written, Romantic poetry is interested in how experience is framed, in other words how experience is ordered.

The monster in Mary Shelley?s Frankestein says that he read Paradise Lost as if it were a true history. He is trying to enunciate his anguish and justify his wrath toward Frankenstein, his creator. And what is most important in his statement is not that he read Milton?s poem; what is most important in explaining the monster?s experience is that he read the poem as if it were true: he believed in it. But then the monster came to understand the poem is not true, the poem is something other than true?it is beautiful.

Milton did not write Paradise Lost as a true history but as a beautiful poem. In the classical view, beauty is more important than truth. And I have the sense that Virgil didn?t write the Aenid as the true history of Rome but as the beautiful history of Rome. That may just be my anachronistic projection onto Virgil, but nonetheless that is my sense.

Looking at it that way, Romanticism is not so much in opposition to classicalism but an elaboration of classicalism. If what is most important about history and religion is not truth but beauty, then Romanticism tries to experience beauty in everything and in every state of being. The contrast to classicalism that Merton explores is provincialism. In 1967 Merton was talking about provincialism using examples of Time and Newsweek, media that had no sense of history, that was really just marketing?marketing an ideology. But the statements he was making would be just as true today using examples of social media. As he put it, it doesn?t matter if you miss a year or two or three of Time, because you just pick up an issue and it?s all right there. You won?t have missed anything. And it doesn?t matter if you check Facebook or Instagram every hour, every day, or once a month?it will still be the same experience when you do check it. It?s all right there. And social media is especially provincial because it connects likeminded viewpoints, fostering a shared ideology that is relevant only because it is shared.

As I make these notes about my retreat at Gethsemani Abbey and Thomas Merton?s talks, I am embarking on a month long journey, a pilgrimage of sorts to the Pacific coast. And as I am making this journey on a Triumph motorcycle, it seems fitting that I recall Robert Pirsig?s Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Pirsig?s book is also concerned with classicalism, with how we make sense of the world we live in. Or perhaps it is not so much concerned with how we make sense of the world but how to be in the world, which is about the only thing Zen about the book other than the title. Writing for me is how to be in the world. I once said I wanted to write what was true. I said that when I first took Jim Hall?s class and became a writer. But even then, what I meant by ?is true? was ?is beautiful?. Since then I?ve honed my writing skills and learned to be more precise with words. So, I can now say I want to write what is beautiful?that is how I want to be in the world.

“Beauty is truth, truth beauty,?that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.”

John Keats

Cognitive Poetics: Comprehension

I am near to completing my reading and response to Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction and Cognitive Poetics in Practice, a project I began about five years ago. It seems like a long time to take with two books that likely serve as textbooks for a semester course. But my intention has been to engage with cognitive poetics deeply and thoroughly, and to that end there is no substitute for time. If I had encountered cognitive poetics in a university course, I would have probably read the entire textbook in a few months but still would have taken several years to integrate it into my writing as I have. Now as I approach the final chapters, I am looking forward to reading more recent work in the field, including Text World Theory and Keats? Poetry by Marcello Giovanelli and Cognitive Literary Science: Dialogues between Literature and Cognition edited by Michael Burke and Emily Troscianko. But before I get ahead of myself, I need to respond to the penultimate chapters by Peter Stockwell and Chatherine Emmott on the comprehension of literature.

Peter Stockwell?s chapter in Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction is divided into three parts. The first part is a general description of comprehension as a cognitive poetic approach using the Construction-Integration model, which considers the emotional response readers have to literature, as well as the intellectual and academic response. Catherine Emmott?s corresponding chapter in Cognitive Poetics in Practice is titled ?Reading for Pleasure?, further emphasizing the centrality of emotional response. The second part of Stockwell?s chapter on the comprehension of literature provides an in-depth look at one tool developed out of the comprehension approach: contextual frame theory, a tool developed by Catherine Emmott. This tool answers a very specific question: how does a reader keep track of the context in a story. But this narrow consideration illuminates much about how we read and why we find reading pleasurable. In the third part, Stockwell concludes the chapter, as usual, with a cognitive poetic analysis of a specific text. He analyzes the play The Importance of Being Earnest using contextual frame theory, taking into account the differences between the text as performed on stage and as read on the page. In Cognitive Poetics in Practice, Emmott provides an overview of her contextual frame theory and then uses it to examine plot twists in a variety of prose fiction.

Stockwell begins the chapter by considering how a text moves a reader. What does it mean that we understand reading through the conceptual metaphor: READING IS A JOURNEY? For one thing, it implies that we evaluate literature based on the sense that the place we arrive at is different from the place we start at. This way of evaluating literature is in accord with the axiom that the most fundamental element of story is change. But the travelling metaphor is complicated by the tension between reader as traveler and reader is mere witness. The reader may have the sense that she is moving through the text, being carried away by the story. But no matter how immersive the experience may feel; the reader does not actually affect the world of the story. Readers are in the role of side-participants, with a strong participatory response but without means to actualize that response.

Stockwell returns to the idea of macrorules and macrostructures from the previous chapter on literature as parable to help explain the construction-integration model of comprehension. In the first stage of reading, the construction stage, a macrostructure is created from the textbase and inferences made by the reader. This macrostucture is an incomplete and incoherent representation of the gist of the text, of the propositional content of the text. In the second stage, the integration stage, cognitive constraints are applied to the macrostructure and adjustments are made based on relevance, coherence, and significance.

What distinguishes the process of building a macrostructure in the constuction-integration model from the process described in the previous chapter is how the model envisions knowledge retrieval. Instead of modelling knowledge as a directory of scripts and schemas which are looked up based on cues from the text, the construction-integration model posits a knowledge net: a collection of propositions, schemas and frames organized and reorganized continually by associations with each other. The meaning of each element in the knowledge net is a function of its links to all the other elements, which makes meaning highly flexible.

Proposition content, scripts, schemas, and frames as described in previous chapters still have a role in how readers understand a text, but these cognitive faculties provide different levels of mental representation that the construction-integration model organizes based on the distance from the stimulus. For example, direct representation, which includes sensory and motor skills, is the closest to the stimulus. Scripts, which provide a set of protocols pertaining to a context as discussed in the chapter on scripts and schemas, are associated with episodic representation or event memory within the knowledge net, a level one step further from the stimulus. Narrative representation and abstract representation, such as semantic processing, linguistic analysis, and deduction, are furthest away from the stimulus in this model. Each level moving away from the stimulus includes the previous, more embodied, level.

The construction-integration model of comprehension provides a very broad way of organizing faculties of embodied cognition relevant to comprehending literature. And after providing an overview, Stockwell narrows in on a specific tool developed within that model, a tool for understanding one narrow aspect of comprehension. Contextual frame theory was developed by Catherine Emmott to explain how readers keep track of characters and setting in a story. Although narrow in scope, contextual frame theory is able to account for a variety of aspects related to reading literature. In my next blog post, I will describe contextual frame theory in more detail and respond to Stockwell?s and Emmott?s application of the theory to different texts.

Text World Theory: Martian Time-Slip

I am continuing my exploration of text world theory as described in Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction and Cognitive Poetics in Practice that I began with an analysis of Sozaboy. Here I analyze the first few paragraphs of Martian Time-Slip and consider the implications of text world theory on my own writing.

The discourse world of Martian Time-Slip is no less complex than that of Sozaboy which I considered in my previous text world analysis. Philip K. Dick (PKD) is best known as the author of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, which was made into an acclaimed movie. I came across PKD the way I imagine many readers do: through Bladerunner and other films. Dozens of PKD novels and stories have been made into films, including: Total Recall, Minority Report, Screamers, and A Scanner Darkly. These films and the stories they are based on shared themes that question our perception of reality and pit the individual against corporate and government agencies. Parts of PKD?s life mirrored these themes. His struggles with mental health and drug use are public knowledge and formed the basis for A Scanner Darkly, published in the late seventies. These themes inform the Common Ground of the discourse world.

Martian Time-Slip was first published in 1963 as a serial in three issues of the SF magazine Worlds of Tomorrow. It was not uncommon for novels to begin as serials before being published in books. Charles Dickens found success publishing in periodicals early in the 19th century. In the 20th century, when paperbacks made books more affordable, magazines continued to be a way for publishers to generate a buzz among devout SF readers before releasing novels to a larger market. The modernization of printing a couple of decades earlier had resulted in the rise of the paperback as a popular medium. Innovative publishers, such as Ballentine, had taken advantage of this new, inexpensive medium to produce science fiction stories published first as magazine serials and then as novel length books. The story of these influential changes in the publishing industry are outlined in a couple of articles at Kirkus Reviews. And it is also described in the novel Trouble on Triton, where Sam Delany writes:

The technological innovations in printing at the beginning of the Sixties, which produced the present “paperback revolution,” are probably the single most important factor contouring the modern science-fiction text. But the name “science fiction” in its various avatars?s-f, speculative fiction, sci-fi, scientifiction?goes back to those earlier technological advances in printing that resulted in the proliferation of “pulp magazines” during the Teens and Twenties.

As a reader in the 21st century, I can?t help but think of all the film adaptations when I read a book by PKD. And to further complicate the issue of discourse participants for the novel, I did not read Martian Time-Slip as a book but listened to an audio version published by Brilliance Audio. I did have a paper copy of the book to use as reference for writing this text world analysis, but I do much of my reading now in audio. With so many discourse participants, the weighty concept of a ?capital A-Author? loses some of its substance. Yet, I knew I was reading a PKD novel and that informed my expectations of what I would find.

Expectations are the beginnings of the Common Ground, elements of the discourse world that participants tacitly agree are relevant to the reading. Although the Common Ground shifts and changes as the novel is read, it is fundamentally driven by the text itself. Martian Time-Slip begins by establishing the Common Ground with a title that suggests conventional tropes popular in 1960s science-fiction, such as martians, advanced technology, and impossible physics. The first paragraphs continue to build the text world with World Building Elements (WBEs) that satisfy the expectations of an SF novel.

From the depths of phenobarbital slumber, Silvia Bohlen heard something that called. Sharp, it broke the layers into which she had sunk, damaging her perfect state of nonself.

?Mom,? her son called again, from outdoors.

Sitting up, she took a swallow of water from the glass by the bed; she put her bare feet on the floor and rose with difficulty. Time by the clock: nine-thirty. She found her robe, walked to the window.

I must not take any more of that, she thought. Better to succumb to the schizophrenic process, join the rest of the world. She raised the window shade; the sunlight, with its familiar reddish, dusty tinge, filled her sight and made it impossible to see. She put up her hand, calling, ?What is it, David??

?Mom, the ditch rider?s here!?

Then this must be Wednesday. She nodded, turned and walked unsteadily from the bedroom to the kitchen, where she managed to put on the good, solid, Earth-made coffee-pot.

In Trouble on Triton, Sam Delany wrote that landscape is the primary hero of an SF novel and the episteme is the secondary hero. The SF genre is defined in terms of landscape, in terms of the time, location, and objects in the story. The episteme is realized in the way characters interact with the landscape. In other words, the most important slots in the SF literary schema will be filled by the WBEs related to time, location, objects, and characters. These are the most salient parts of the story and the parts most readily employed to describe the story.

In her paper on Text Structure: Movie Scripts, Nelly Tincheva states that the text world structure is what most people recall when they describe a movie. But for SF movies in particular, I think the text world structure, which Tincheva argues is often based on the SOURCE-PATH-GOAL metaphor, is less likely to be recalled than are the WBEs. For example, when I tell a friend about Bladerunner or Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? I would say something like: ?A post-apocalyptic story set a few decades in the future on an urbanized planet Earth that has completely destroyed the natural environment. Humans have expanded to colonies in outer space using the labor of androids called replicants. When replicants become sentient and try to pass as human, they are hunted by the police using a device that measures emotional response.? The elements I would first related are time (a few decades in the future), location (post-apocalyptic Earth and outer space colonies), objects (androids and device to test for androids), and characters (replicants and police). Of course, there is more to say about the story, but these elements of time, location, objects, and characters are the defining slots in the SF literary schema.

The WBEs in the first few paragraphs of Martian Time-Slip satisfy the expectations of a SF novel. The sun is reddish, as expected on Mars. Someone called a ?ditch rider? arrives. The word ?ditch rider? is a metonymic device that also meets the stylistic expectations of a SF novel: two common words joined together to evoke a fantastical object, for example ?lightsaber? or ?starship?.

The opening paragraphs also include WBEs that are completely mundane: alarm clocks, window shades, a glass of water, and a coffee pot. The adjective ?Earth-made? applied to the coffee pot is another marker of the SF novel, but the effect of applying this metonymic device as an adjective instead of noun is to make an ordinary object uncanny instead of fantastic. This stylistic nuance is suggestive of another theme of the novel, mental health. The drug phenobarbital introduces this theme more explicitly, which satisfies another expectation of a PKD novel.

The Function Advancing Propositions (FAPs) in these first few paragraphs are both character advancing, ?Sharp, it broke the layers into which she had sunk, damaging her perfect state of nonself.? and plot advancing, ?Sitting up she took a swallow of water from the glass by the bed.? The character advancing propositions are frequently related to her use of the drug and its effect on her. The plot is simply to get out of bed and make coffee, a plot made interesting by the complications of her being under the influence of the drug. The balance of character advancing and plot advancing FAPs is a good example of building character through action, demonstrating the writerly technique of ?show don?t tell?.
Sub-worlds are introduced as Silvia’s thoughts and goals. These sub-worlds also serve to introduce one of the central themes of the novel: mental health. Her thoughts and goals construct a modal sub-world. She must not take any more of the drug. She waivers between her and the ditch riders obligations to drain the water tank. Later in the text, it will be established that the elements of this sub-world, specifically the schizophrenic process are actually part of the text world.

If I were to tell a friend about Martian Time-Slip, I would say something like: ?Corporations are moving in to transform a Martian colony from a small settlement into a major urban center. Schizophrenia and autism have become a wide-spread epidemic. But schizophrenia is a disjointed form of time travel, which the native Martians have a way of controlling.? My emphasis would be on the WBEs and the themes of urbanization and mental health which are addressed in the sub-worlds generated by the FAPs. For SF stories, the structure of the text world is shaped by the WBEs and themes suggested by sub-worlds.
Although I have found the insights provided by this analysis to enhance my reading of both texts, especially Sozaboy, my purpose in analyzing these two texts using text world theory is to support my growth and development as a writer. Text world theory allows for a close examination at the level of sentences and clauses of an entire text, such as a novel, that lead to broad conclusions about the text. The analysis looks for patterns in the WBEs and FAPs.

One thing I noticed in my analysis of both these novels is the use of consistent types of FAPs for rhetorical effect. Saro-Wiwa uses argument advancing propositions in the first few paragraphs of Sozaboy to create anxiety. PKD uses modal sub-worlds to introduce his novel?s theme of mental health. The consistency in types of FAPs and sub-worlds contribute to the narrator?s ?voice?.

My text world analysis of Sozaboy was helpful in allowing me to engage deeply with the text. On my first reading of the novel, I had not noticed the argumentative structure of the opening. Surely, I had felt it, but it hadn?t stood out to me as a stylistic attribute. The process of doing a text world analysis drew my attention to that attribute, enhancing my appreciation of the novel. Although my text world analysis of Martian Time-Slip did not provide a similar dramatic insight, it did lead to a deeper reading. The connection between the sub-worlds and the themes of the novel were not obvious to me as a stylistic feature of the text at first.

I can see two beneficial uses for text world analysis as a writer. First, as I become more familiar with text world theory I am learning new ways of using FAPs for rhetorical effect. I am becoming a better reader, and that will make me a better writer. Second, I can directly apply text world theory to my own drafts to better control the narrator?s ?voice?.

Summer Retreat 2017

This June I went on another retreat at Gethsemani Abbey. This is the third year I?ve started my summer with such a retreat. In 2015, I wrote about my initial experience at the abbey. Now the retreat has become an annual tradition for me, one that marks the transition into summer for me. The retreat also provides a framework that helps with the self-discipline required to sustain my writing efforts throughout the summer. And perhaps most important, my time at Gethsemani Abbey takes me outside the concerns of my own life and brings me in contact with something universal, expansive.

This past winter was a difficult time in my writing life. I wrote about my experience of writer?s block: Not Writing is Writing, and Not Writing is Not Writing. Summer retreats must be scheduled as early as February, so I had to set the intention early in the year. And as spring approached, I began looking forward to the summer months when I could devote several hours a day to my writing. In May I started writing a little more often than I had been throughout the winter months, bringing my laptop to the coffee house for a few hours each weekend. The repetitive or ritual aspect of these actions helps me to orient myself. And when the retreat finally happened, I found that not only was I able to focus on writing, but I was also able to refresh my spiritual and contemplative practices.

I brought Thomas Merton?s: Path to the Palace of Nowhere by James Finely along with me to listen to. This audiobook is structured as a series of talks or lectures preceding meditation, a format I am familiar with from Buddhist retreats I?ve gone on. Finley provides instruction on meditation, love, humility, contemplative prayer, and more based on Merton?s writing and his own experience as Merton?s student. These talks provided me focus for contemplation while on retreat.

On retreat, the silent company of others fosters a sense of intimacy. The absence of verbal communication highlights other forms of communication and other messages besides those communicated verbally. A powerful phatic message resounds in the shuffle of feet as each person makes their way to the church for prayer or to the dinning room for meals: we are here. It is perhaps the most relevant statement any of us can make, but it often gets drowned out by all our other discourse. On retreat, ?we are here? is all there is.

While the retreat provides me an opportunity to transition into my summer and a chance to enrich my contemplative practice, my core motivation for going on retreat is to write. This summer I was able to revise several chapters of the novel I am currently working on. And I was able to establish a routine of writing for several hours a day that continued throughout the summer. I find starting this routine easier on retreat because there are fewer distractions, and the retreat provides a framework conducive to self-discipline because it is both unstructured and centered.

For retreatants, there are very few proscriptions except for silence and for meal times. But the monks form a highly structured community that begins each day with morning prayers at 3 AM. The bells ring throughout the day, calling everyone to prayer. But it is my own internal voice that gets me out of bed in the morning and gets me to sit at the computer to write. The bells are frequent reminders of a rigorous structure, but what I take away as a retreatant is an ear for my own voice prodding me to wake up and get to work.

After the retreat, I was able to sustain my writing through to the end of summer when I started a new job. The requirements of this job have once again limited how much time I can devote to writing. But I continue to keep up my reading and start each day with a cup of coffee and a few minutes making notes on this blog. Soon I will post a follow-up to my investigation of Text World Theory and Ken Saro-Wiwa?s Sozaboy. And when winter settles in, I plan to return to my novel with some fresh ideas and perhaps an entirely new direction.

Text World Theory: Rotten English of Ken Saro-Wiwa

In this blog post, I am familiarizing myself with the theoretical methods described in the chapters on text world theory from Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction and Cognitive Poetics in Practice by investigating two novels: Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English by Ken Saro-Wiwa and then Martian Time-Slip by Philip K. Dick.

In my initial response to text world theory I discussed how I am using these theoretical methods to revise and reorganize my own novel. During my revisions, I limited my consideration to the text world level of the novel so that I was free to experiment at that structural level. Also, I listed the FAPs and WBEs so that I could see connections that I had not thought of before. Now, I will apply the methods of text world theory to a reading of the post-colonial Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English by Ken Saro-Wiwa and sci-fi Martian Time-Slip by Philip K. Dick. I have limited the detailed analysis to the first few paragraphs of each novel, because I am particularly interested in how these opening pages relate to the complete novel.

An analysis using text world theory begins first by considering the discourse world of the text, which for post-colonial literature is quite different from the prototypical discourse world of two speakers in conversation. This prototypical discourse world can be stretched to accommodate a personal letter writer and receiver. And an analogy between letter writing and book writing, motivated by the metaphor ?A book is the author?s letter to the world?, can further elaborate the model of a discourse world to accommodate novels. However, post-colonial literature, such as Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English, draws attention to consequences of the isomorphic relationship between the prototypical discourse world and the discourse world of the novel.

A prototypical letter is written by one person and delivered to another person by a system which is fairly indifferent to the letter?s contents. In contrast, a novel is written, edited, published, and disseminated by multiple people and organizations. It is also read, discussed, and taught by many more individuals and organizations. Almost none of the parties involved at any stage in the discourse world are indifferent to the contents of the novel. This is especially true for Sozaboy which is politically charged.

I first encountered to Sozaboy at a literary conference in Boulder, CO several years ago. The topic of the conference was first-person narrative, ?The Shape of the I?. Timothy Morton was the key note speaker, and environmental philosophy was a central concern of the conference. The discourse world included university professors and artists giving presentations on the African Diaspora, literary criticism, environmentalism, performance art, and philosophy. All of these view points framed my reading of Sozaboy as an international novel, an environmental novel, and an anti-war novel.

Ken Saro-Wiwa was a Nigerian author and activist. He was executed in 1995 after a controversial trial by a military tribunal that was allegedly supported by the Shell Oil Company. In 2009, Shell Oil settled out of court and gave the families of those executed over fifteen million dollars without admitting any involvement.

The ?Rotten English? in which Sozaboy is written is an invented language, a mixture of Nigerian pidgin, broken English and occasional idiomatic English phrases. According to a paper by Jeffrey Gunn at University of Glasgow, this invented language crosses ?ethnic and cultural barriers and allows a critique of all parties involved in the Nigerian Civil War.? These parties involved in this civil war, which lasted from 1967 to 1970, include the Ibo–the dominant tribe in Eastern Nigeria–and the multitude of other ethnic minority groups that were located within borders of the newly proposed country. Saro-Wiwa invented a language that speaks across ethnic and linguistic lines, entailing every reader will at some point feel displaced by the language. Rotten English, at the level of the discourse world, is no one?s actual language, not even the author?s. The glossary included at the end of the book, even if it is not actually utilized by the reader, introduces into the Common Ground tools for crossing linguistic lines, implying that cultural displacement can be overcome.

In my initial post to this blog on Sozaboy I wrote about my feelings of social anxiety attending the conference, the anxiety I feel at all large gatherings. Sozaboy begins with a large social gathering, a celebration among the fictional villages of Dukana. The feeling of social anxiety Saro-Wiwa creates at the begining of the novel is rooted deep in the grammar of Rotten English and arises from a conflict between sub-worlds.

Although everybody in Dukana was happy at first.

All the nine villages were dancing and we were eating plenty maize with pear and knacking tory under the moon. Because the work on the farm have finished and the yams were growing well well. And because the old, bad government have dead, and the new government of soza and police have come.

Everybody was saying that everything will be good in Dukana because of the new government. They were saying that kotuma ashbottom from Bori cannot take bribe from people in Dukana again. They were saying too that all those policemen who used to chop big big bribe from people who get case will not chop again. Everybody was happy because from that time, even magistrate in the court at Bori will begin to give better judgement. And traffic police will do his work well well. Even one woman was talking that the sun will shine proper proper and people will not die again because there will be medicine in the hospital and the doctor will not charge money for operation. Yes, everybody in Dukana was happy. And they were all singing.

World building elements (WBE) establish location, time, objects, and characters. The WBEs in these first few lines locate the text world in farming community, Dukana, made up of nine villages and situated near a larger urban center, Bari. The celebration is happening at night in the middle of the growing season just following a regime change. The objects of the text world include the celebration, yams and other food, the moon and the sun, gossip (knacking tory), governments (old and new), courts, medicine and hospitals, and bribes. Except for the mention of an anonymous woman, there are no specific characters introduced to the text world in this opening. There are hints as to what kind of characters may appear in the story, but the lack of specific characters focus attention on the community, Dukana, as a whole.

The function advancing propositions (FAP) are elements of the text that advance the discourse in some way, that move or motivate the discourse. Most of the FAPs in this section are argument advancing rather than action advancing, statements about what will happen and will not happen. There are a few action advancing propositions: dancing, eating, gossiping, and singing; but those actions are tersely described. The argument FAPs, on the other hand, describe actions related to government corruption creating sub-worlds where bribery and corruption have ended. But the very first line of the novel undermines the potential efficacy of these arguments for ironic effect.

The very first line signals a discursive FAP with the subordinate conjunction ?although?. The line is also an incomplete sentence, a dependent clause that calls for an independent clause to contrast with it. But the paragraphs that follow do not contrast with this dependent clause and instead argue for the truth of the statement that everybody in Dukana was happy. The feeling of social anxiety that arises in these first few paragraphs is rooted in the grammar of Rotten English. The sub-worlds created by the argument FAPs bolster the dependent clause in the first line, but grammatically, these sub-worlds increase the anticipation for the inevitable independent clause that will contradict them, undermining the sub-worlds even as they are established. The grammar signals to the reader that no matter how extravagant the promises of the new government, there must come an independent clause that runs counter to the happiness of Dukana. Indeed, several pages into the book the first line is repeated with the addition of an independent clause: ?So, although everyone was happy at first, after some time, everything begin to spoil small by small and they were saying that trouble have started.?

In my next blog post, I will consider Martian Time-Slip by Philip K. Dick using text world theory. Although, Martian Time-Slip is a very different kind of novel than Sozaboy there are some interesting connections.

Not Writing is Not Writing

In my previous post, I described how writing is not writing, how frequent breaks and non-writing activities are necessary to the creative process. Here I?m going to consider those extended intermissions which are not conducive to creativity. What do I do when I?m in a slump, when not writing is indeed not writing.

My vocational demands are greatest during the fall and winter months. During these months, I don?t have the luxury of manufacturing distractions from writing with walks through the park or rides on my motorcycle. My life during these months is full to the brim with responsibilities that distract me from writing. I?m usually only able to make time to write a few days a week and only for an hour or two at a time. I?m generally satisfied if I can keep that pace, and the sparse writing schedule can even spur creativity as I discussed previously.

However, if I miss a few days of writing because of some pressing demands, then a week or more may pass by without any writing at all. I consider myself in a slump if two or more weeks have gone by without my working on my novel or this blog. Some slumps are easily recovered from. I only have to set aside some time during the weekend, cancel any engagements I may have, and write. But a slump can gather momentum until the situation feels intractable. When I find myself in an intractable slump, I have two ways of responding. First, I attempt to mitigate the consequences of being in a writing slump. And second, I try to pull myself out of it.

The consequences I experience while being in a slump, when I?m not writing at all, are lethargy, dullness, and inertia; in a word, depression. Sometimes the factors that keep me from my writing are beyond my control, and there is nothing else to do but deal with it as best I can. I try to keep myself engaged in activities related to writing but that don?t require the same level of time and commitment. In short, I read.

Reading maintains my ability to use and manipulate literary schemas. In Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction, Peter Stockwell describes literary schemas as ?a higher-level conceptual structure that organizes our ways of reading?. Literary schemas structure ordinary world schemas (context), text schemas (structure), and language schemas (style) when we are reading or writing in a literary context. Being able to use and manipulate literary schemas means being able to manage various levels of schemas to restructure, reinforce, disrupt or refresh these ordinary schemas. Reading is where writing starts, and I always have several books near to hand. But when I am in a writing slump, I make an extra effort to read more than usual.

I enjoy a wide variety of novels, from serious fiction to scintillating pulp. Often what distinguishes one from the other is the level of schema the writing engages. Writing that manipulates language schemas is considered highbrow. Writing that engages world schemas is called lowbrow. I find all of it pleasurable, including experimental writing that plays with text schemas. And I like to take my time with novels, reading a book over a period of weeks or months allows me to digest the writing and live with the story, rather than merely to find out what happens. And occasionally I will re-read a novel, attending to a different level of schema on subsequent readings. How does the writer of this detective novel use language to develop characters? How does the structure of this experimental novel determine the narrative?

Poetry is something I linger over. I may read and reread the same poet or long poem for several years, growing with it and letting it shape me. When I find myself in a slump, poetry is an effective tonic. Reading poetry inspires me, and very often I am compelled to return to my own writing after reading poetry. Perhaps because I don?t usually get caught up in the narrative, reading poetry focuses my attention on language schemas.

But pleasure reading, even intense pleasure reading, is several steps removed from actual writing. Although more actively imaginative than watching a movie or playing a video game, pleasure reading is passive compared to writing. Reading can go deeper than pleasure, though. Research into literary analysis engenders my reading of fiction and poetry with a level of engagement that goes beyond the passive connection to already developed schemas. So when I am in a writing slump, I also read literary criticism to develop my understanding of the nature of literary schemas. This understanding increases my appreciation of literary schemas encountered in fiction and poetry, affording me the opportunity to read creatively at the level of context, structure, and style. And reading moves that much closer to writing.

Mitigating the negative consequences of a writing slump is important, but there is really only one way to pull myself out of a slump: I write. This blog has been helpful for that. Although my posts are relatively long compared to many blogs, each post is short enough that I can complete it in a reasonable amount of time. And if a slump has stretched on for several months, then my writing always feels clumsy when I return to it. When I am working on my novel, I know I will have to edit and revise any chapter I write that is subpar?which can be yet another deterrent to writing. But I allow myself to write and post to the blog even when I don?t feel the quality of my writing is at its best. My apologies to the reader.

I also have people who encourage me. My sister asks me occasionally about my writing and if I?ve been working on anything recently, which serves as a gentle and kind reminder to get back to it. And I encourage myself. I?ll promise myself treats and rewards for an honest hour work at the keyboard.

As I look toward 2017, I find myself mired in a writing slump. I have been writing but not on my novel. So this blog post and the last are attempts to shake off the slough. Most importantly, I don?t chide or berate myself for being in a slump. That doesn?t help at all. I maintain a positive attitude and keep myself engaged as much as possible through reading. The muse will return, always, I am certain.

Writing is Not Writing

I?ve been thinking about my writing process. During the summer months I?m able to devote my days to writing, and the story I?m working on often takes over my world. But in the autumn months, vocational demands impinge on the days, even hours, I can devote to writing. So how do I make the most of the fecund summer months? And what do I do during the withering months between summer and spring?

The hard work of writing, putting down words, is essential. I call it hard work, because for me it often is. Sometimes it seems the hardest work of all. I?d rather be doing anything than write?dishes, house cleaning, running errands, my day job, anything. But I have to stay in the seat with my fingers on the keyboard for hours. There?s no other way.

However, I also know I have to get distracted. If I don?t get distracted, nothing comes: no words, no ideas, nothing. If I sit at the computer all morning, three or four hours, then eventually the words will trickle through, but too slowly to create a story. There needs to be a flow that can?t be forced.

So writing in the summer months is about balancing distraction with production. There are many new books on learning that reference cognitive research into the important role of distraction in learning and creativity. How We Learn by Benedict Carey describes that balance in a chapter called, ?The Upside of Distraction?, citing psychological research on the role of incubation in problem solving. According to a meta-analysis of the research, breaks with mild activity, such as video games, TV, and surfing the web, are optimal for solving linguistic problems.

Anagrams and crossword puzzles are a different order of linguistic problem compared to writing, but the research jibes with my own experience. For example, to write this blog I went through several drafts, beginning with a free write. After jotting down my ideas about summer writing, I took a break. I went for a walk, made some lunch. Then I returned and made an outline that included references to Carey?s book.

The timing of the break is crucial in obtaining the most benefit. For incubation to occur, I have to get stuck, which means I have to be gripped by what I?m writing. That takes time in the seat, usually an hour or two. Stopping just when I?m engaged creates something called the Zeigarnik effect, named after a Lithuanian researcher who found that people remembered more when interrupted during a task than when they completed the task.

Beginning a piece of writing but stopping before I?ve finished prioritizes the writing in my mind, which colors my perceptions and experiences. The story takes over my world. My mind becomes inclined to make connections relevant to the interrupted writing. Sometimes these connections are major insights, but other times they are small but interesting: an overheard turn of phrase or an observed character trait.

Another strategy I employ in my writing process is described in A Mind For Numbers by Barbara Oakley. The book is geared toward applications to learning math and science, but the strategies Oakley recommends is based on the same research as many of the new cognitive learning books. She explains the difference between focused thinking and diffused thinking. Oakley recommends setting a timer for twenty-five minutes and focusing on a particular problem. When the twenty-five minutes is up, stop and take a reward.

I will set a timer for an hour when I sit down to write. Sometimes I place a piece of chocolate on the table and tell myself I have one hour of writing before I can have it. If the hour goes by without much writing, I?ll set it for another hour (but still eat the chocolate, of course.) If the words are flowing and the timer goes off, I stop. I do something else. I watch Netflix. Or I play on the computer. Forty-five minutes or an hour later, I set the timer and sit back down to write again. The words usually come easier by this time, even if I don?t have a chocolate waiting for me. There is a flow.

I?ve gotten pretty good at writing by not writing during the summer months when I have time to sit down to write and time for walks and web surfing. But other times, when I?m busier and lazier, I don?t write by not writing, I just don?t write. In my next blog post, I?m going to write about what I do during the times when I?m not just distracted but stuck, completely blocked.

Cognitive Poetics: Text World Theory

I am continuing my response to Peter Stockwell?s Cognitive Poetics and Cognitive Poetics in Practice edited by Joanna Gavins and Gerard Steen with an overview of text world theory. This chapter, like the previous chapter on parable, is more complex than the beginning chapters because these methods and approaches incorporate the foundational concepts previously introduced to expand the range and depth of the cognitive poetic analysis. For example, text world theory is similar to possible worlds theory described in the chapter on Discourse worlds and mental spaces, but text world theory is more thoroughly rooted in the cognitive approach and is generally applicable to longer texts.

Possible worlds and mental spaces offer a way of explaining the process a reader uses to interpret literature. Cognitive poetic analysis using possible worlds theory is limited to generalized statements about texts that describe setting and analyze characters. Mental space theory can extend possible worlds theory by describing the cognitive means by which readers track these possible worlds. But possible worlds theory is a philosophical conceptualization that models knowledge as a formal logical set rather than using a cognitive model of information.

In text world theory, a text world is constructed as a consequence of reader?s cognition. In other words, text worlds are what readers build in their minds using the material of the text. Text world theory offers a finer, more detailed text analysis, as well as a fundamentally cognitive explanation for how reading is a process of world building. It is broader in scope than possible worlds theory in that the top level of the text world theory is the discourse world, a language event that includes all the immediate situation in which the text is read. The discourse world, as modeled in text world theory, includes two or more participants. Participants bring all their memories, intentions, knowledge, and motivations to the language event.

The next level down is the text world, which can be divided into two types of components: World Building Elements (WBE) and Function Advancing Propositions (FAP). Below the text world are levels of sub-worlds that can extend indefinitely. Changes in focalizing, location, time, etc. will create sub-worlds, which can be participant accessible or character accessible.

Although the top level discourse world potentially includes every aspect of the reader?s world, all of their memories, knowledge, and motivations; only those aspects which form a necessary context for understanding are used as the Common Ground. The concept of Common Ground directly links aspects of the discourse world to the text world. Agreement is implicit between discourse participants on elements included in the Common Ground. Disagreement at this level would cause a breakdown in communication leading to misunderstanding, absurdity, or incoherence.

The text world level is constructed incrementally from elements of the Common Ground and linguistic features of the actual text to form WBEs and FAPs. These elements and propositions are directly linked to the words and phrases in the text. WBEs provide detail of location, time, objects, and characters. FAPs introduce motivation, action, and argument to the text world. The same cognitive mechanisms used to organize the information in the actual world, such as prototypes, scripts, schemas and cognitive metaphors, are used to organize WBEs and FAPs that build the text world. To accommodate the richness and subtlety that can be expressed in literature, the text world includes sub-worlds with the same basic structure as the text world. Flashbacks, points-of-view, hypotheticals are all sub-worlds.

Joanna Gavins writes in Cognitive Poetics in Practice that a typical cognitive poetical analysis using the methodology of text world theory begins at the level of the discourse world where participants are engaged in a language event. She continues from the discourse world to the construction of the text world or mental representation by the participants. Gavins applies the methodology to an analysis of Donald Barthelme?s Snow White, which is a notoriously difficult novel in the postmodern style. Gavins? analysis reveals that much of the difficulty can be traced to the top-level discourse world where the author repeatedly rejects ?his obligation to communicate clearly and efficiently?. She concludes by suggesting that although some readers may be put off by the complexity generated by an uncooperative author, for many readers the complexity is what attracts them to the text.

A similar conclusion about the aesthetic pleasure of complexity was arrived at by the author of a paper I read several years ago which also used text world theory. Nelly Tincheva?s paper Text Structure: Movie Scripts proposes at least three types of text structure: textual world structure, superstructure, and overall structure. Her claim is that the Textual World??a cognitive construct which organizes all activated mental models of PEOPLE and OBJECTS.??is structured around the SOURCE-PATH-GOAL image metaphor. What she identifies as the superstructure correlates with sub-worlds within the text world, or rather with how sub-worlds are structured in the text. She makes the interesting observations that what is generally remembered by readers is textual world structure and not the superstructure but that a disjunction between textual world structure and superstructure is aesthetically appealing.

Peter Stockwell provides three short examples of cognitive poetic analysis using text world theory. First, he considers a passage from Birdsong a novel by Sebastian Faulks set in WWI. He contrasts this passage with one from The Brain-Stealers of Mars by John W. Campbell, a 1936 pulp SF novel. What he finds is that for Birdsong , the FAPs in the text world are mostly relational and descriptive, with action driven FAPs occurring in sub-worlds. But for The Brain-Stealers of Mars, the FAPs in the text world are primarily actional, and sub-worlds with FAPs that are attitudinal ?are all present only in order to explain the immediate reason for an action.? While the contrast between the styles of two novels is a useful exercise for elucidating the technique of text world theory, similar conclusions could be drawn from a variety of analytical techniques.

Stockwell ends the chapter with a cognitive analysis of a poem by John Keats that does provide some unique insights specifically based on the sub-worlds of the poem. First, Stockwell comments on the fact that When I have Fears is written in such a way as to have a clear discourse world and clear sub-worlds, but no actual text world. He proposes borrowing a technique from deictic shift theory so that movement between sub-worlds can be described as world-switches along a nested hierarchy. So then, the phrases: ?When I have?, ?Before high-piled books?, ?When I behold?, and ?Then on the shore? all que the same sub-world which is a literary top level, just below the discourse world. Furthermore, the final line: ?Till Love and Fame to nothingness do sink.? can be read as part of this literary top level sub-world or as part of an embedded metaphorical sub-world. The two different readings lead to unique interpretations of the poem, one stoical and the other despairing.

As I concluded when I first wrote about text world theory in my response to Tincheva?s paper, any critical theory that facilitates my engagement with texts is appreciated. And I find the techniques and methods described in these chapters on text world theory useful for thinking about what I read and what I write. This has been especially true for when I consider structure. For example, I am currently revising the first few chapters of the novel I am working on and restructuring the first part of the story. Since I have already written a draft of these chapters, there are multiple sub-worlds including flashbacks and focalizing changes. I have found it useful to consider only the text world level of the story as I do this restructuring, focusing first on the WBEs and then the FAPs at this level provides a summary of the text world.

I will continue my response to this chapter on text world theory in my next blog post by investigating two texts: Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English by Ken Saro-Wiwa and Martian Time-Slip by Philip K. Dick.

Poetics Today: Ideology and Entertainment

I am interested in understanding what reading fiction does to us while we are being entertained and how a writer works to transfer ideology while also working to please the reader. Here I respond to a paper from Poetics Today v23 by Francis F. Steen that sets out to explain Aphra Behn?s approach to exactly that problem and the apparent contradiction between her ideological feminism and her political support of royalism. In two prior blogs, I responded to articles by Reuven Tsur and Liza Zunshine also from Poetics Today v23, a collection of papers from 2002 on the cognitive revolution in literary studies. This paper by Francis F. Steen applies cognitive blending theory to an analysis of Love-Letters between a Nobleman and His Sister by Aphra Behn. Steen?s approach is different from Tsur?s and Zunshines in that he attempts to draw broad conclusions about fictional narrative compared to other modes of discourse and does not strictly hold to a cognitive analysis of the text.

Steen explains that Behn?s ?instructional pact? was not between writer and reader but between writer and ruler. She wrote for the Royalists, using literature as a means of ?insinuating? Royalist beliefs and attitudes toward government. Aphra Behn intended her writing to be political and instructive. Steen quotes her saying:

They are secret instructions to the People, in things that ?tis impossible to insinuate into them any other way.

But Steen makes the argument that literature cannot ?effectively serve two masters, the pleasures of the individual and the priorities of the state.? To support his argument, Steen uses conceptual blending to analyze how Behn maps the devotion of two lovers onto the devotion of subjects to the monarch. What Steen draws attention to is the nature of the love affair and the unexpected configurations implied by the mapping. Royalist devotion is mapped onto an illicit and incestuous affair; Whiggish limitations on the monarch are mapped onto moral objections to the love affair.

Steen claims that the ?advantage of fiction? is to allow exploration of possibilities without a commitment to factuality or practicality. Conceptual blends, especially complex literary blends, are not firmly determined. Not every aspect of an input space gets mapped onto the generic space or blended space. The reader can and must explore contradictory possibilities. New structures of information are developed and tested in fiction that might not be accessible in more earnest nonfiction.

The cognitive task of fiction, says Steen, is to improve the internal organization of information through simulation. Readers must be ?seduced? into imagining the fictional world, a cognitively demanding act of suspending belief. Steen argues that the cognitive demands of reading fiction undermine the ?instructional pact? described by Aphra Behn.
For writing to be effective as fiction it must afford an experience of simulation that has no immediate consequences for the real world. For example, I can enjoy reading a novel about vampires because vampires are fiction. But if there were vampires in the actual world, I would be like the Frog Brothers in the The Lost Boys who read horror comics as nonfiction texts in order to learn how to fight the undead. The goal of a nonfiction text is consistency. If vampires existed in the actual world, I would want to read a text with facts consistent with the actual world: inviting a vampire into your home nullifies the usual deterrents. But the goal of fictive simulation is not consistency but possibility. Fictions way of knowing the world is to provide a multitude of possibilities that are explored by the reader. Because I am assured that vampires do not in fact exist, I am willing to entertain all the possibilities: What if I were attacked by a vampire? What if I became a vampire? What if someone I loved were a vampire?

Steen?s contention that the more effective writing is as fiction the less effective it will be as propaganda depends on the distinction he makes between propaganda and ?absorption and learning?, a distinction he characterizes as each being the obverse of the other. But his point here was not clear to me. The word ?propaganda? can have different meanings with either a narrow or a broad scope. I wasn?t clear on which meaning Steen was using. Taken narrowly, propaganda refers to the dissemination of false or exaggerated ideas in service of a government or cause. Literature of World War II Nazi Germany is exemplary of this type of propaganda. But taken more broadly, propaganda can refer, without ethical evaluation, to the spread of any ideas in service of a government or cause. This broad definition is less morally loaded than the narrow definition. Both definitions are useful. But the narrow, moralistic definition feels anachronistic when applied to literature of the 17th century. And the distinction Steen sets forth becomes shaky when using a broad definition of propaganda.

Steen?s cognitive analysis of Behn?s writing based on blending theory is thorough, but he does not explain or justify the comparison between fiction and non-fiction with the same cognitive tools. In an article that appears in the same volume, Tony Jackson critiques Steen?s paper for relying on literary tools outside of cognitive poetics. Jackson responds to several papers in the volume and identifies general problems confronting cognitive poetics in that early stage. He calls for more specification of how blending theory operates in the mind, and he challenges Steen?s deployment of Dorrit Cohn to discuss the nature of fictional narrative. According to Jackson, what is lacking is clarification on what cognitive poetics can yield that other approaches, such as Cohn?s, do not already offer.

In another article in Poetics Today v23 that appeared after Steen?s and Jackson?s, Eyal Segal discusses one of Dorrit Cohn?s books: The Distinction of Fiction. While Steen?s argument pits fiction against philosophical writing, in this book Cohn narrows her comparison down to two categories of narrative: fiction and historiography. But even between these two categories, Segal identifies the difficulty Cohn has in coming up with consistent criteria for distinguishing fiction from non-fiction. Cohn identifies three ?sign posts of fiction?:

  • emancipation from an external database
  • open to inside views of characters? minds
  • narrator?s voice is distinct from author?s voice

Eyal Segal points out the inconsistency in the nature of these criteria: only one of them is a textual feature. The relationship between the text and an external database or between the narrator?s voice and the author?s voice cannot be determined from the text alone. Segal contends that these two criteria are actually conditions that produce fictionality, characteristics of the communicative framework rather than of the text itself.

Perhaps the inconsistency Segal identifies in Cohn?s sign posts are necessary in any system that distinguishes between fiction and non-fiction. In Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction, Peter Stockwell describes the literary reading experience as a two stage process: interpretation, which begins in cultural knowledge, and reading, which is analytically engaged with the text itself. These two stages can be distinguished from one another but not uncoupled. There would be no way to distinguish one type of reading experience from another (i.e. reading fiction from reading non-fiction) without naming differences in the interpretation stage and in the reading stage.

Segal?s review of Dorrit Cohn?s book along with Stockwell?s description of the literary reading experience can help frame Steen?s argument that the more effective writing is as fiction, the less effective it will be as propaganda. Steen is analyzing contradictory experiences at different stages of reading. Readers are (and were) aware of Behn?s political support of the Royalists and encounter her writing as propaganda at the interpretation stage. But at the reading stage, textual features, such as described by Steen, allow for different viewpoints that contradict impressions formed in the interpretation stage.

I found Steen?s application of blending theory to Love-Letters between a Nobleman and His Sister interesting because he reveals an aspect of the structure used by Aphra Behn that is unusual and intriguing. But I also found Jackson?s critique of Steen?s paper valid. Steen?s deployment of Dorrit Cohn to support his broad argument about fiction would have benefited from further application of tools from cognitive poetics, such as those described by Peter Stockwell in the chapter on prototypes and categorization in Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction.